cuidado com o coração

Cardiopatias pediátricas

Visão geral sobre as cardiopatias

Quais são as causas da cardiopatias congênitas?

Quando é diagnostica a cardiopatia congênita, as mães com frequência querem saber se fizeram alguma coisa que pudesse causar a cardiopatia congênita no bebê. É importante lembrar que, na maioria das vezes, o DCC não tem causa. Na maior parte dos casos, não há motivo identificável para que ocorra o defeito cardíaco.

Contudo, alguns grupos de risco são:

Caso a mãe esteja em uma dessas categorias, é importante conversar com o médico durante a gravidez.

Quais são os tipos de cardiopatias congênitas?

Diversas cardiopatias congênitas são detectados e tratados no início da lactância.

Sintomas das cardiopatias congênitas

Os sintomas dessa afecção em lactentes e crianças são:

Importante! Como Suspeitar de Doença Cardíaca na Infância?

Assista a esse vídeo da excelente  cardiologia pediátrica de São Paulo, a Dra. Maria Fernanda Jardim.

Ela diz algo muito importante: não cabe aos pais e nem aos pediatras fazerem diagnósticos de cardiopatias, mas não existe nenhuma razão para não termos uma visão de como “suspeitar” dos sinais de que algo não esteja em ordem com seu filho, sobrinho ou filho de um amigo.

Qual é a importância disso?

Muito importante, quanto antes se detecta a anormalidade e assim a criança é encaminhada ao cardiologista pediátrico, mais chances de recuperação ou mais chances da recuperação ser menos problemática, que são coisas diferentes, mas igualmente importantes.

 

Todas as cardiopatias congênitas mostram coloração azul da pele (cianóticas)?

Não. Existem as cardiopatias cianóticas e as não-cianóticas

Cianóticas

Não cianóticas

As cardiopatias congênitas são genéticas?

Cerca de 1% das crianças nasce com DCC, mas o risco aumenta se um dos pais ou algum irmão tiver DCC.

Outras causas de cardiopatias congênitas-as anormalidades cromossômicas

Os cromossomos são estruturas nas células humanas que contêm os genes, os quais determinam traços como a cor dos olhos e o tipo de sangue. Em geral, existem 46 cromossomos em cada célula do corpo. Ter cromossomos a mais ou a menos resulta em problemas de saúde e defeitos congênitos.

Cinco a oito por cento dos bebês com DCC têm anomalia cromossômica.

Há diversas anormalidades cromossômicas associadas aos defeitos cardíacos congênitos, entre elas:

Outras causas de cardiopatias congênitas-defeitos de um só gene

Quando um gene sofre mutação, vários problemas de saúde podem ocorrer. Diversos problemas com causa genética em geral são denominados síndrome. Algumas síndromes genéticas são associadas à maior incidência de defeitos cardíacos, quais sejam:

Exames para detecção de defeitos cardíacos congênitos

Os defeitos cardíacos congênitos com frequência são detectados quando o médico percebe sons anormais ou sopro cardíaco quando ausculta o coração do bebê. Dependendo do tipo de sopro que ouve o médico pode pedir mais exames como:

  • Ecocardiograma
  • Cateterismo cardíaco
  • Radiografia de tórax
  • Ressonância magnética (RM)
  • Exames de sangue/análise cromossômica
Se a criança for diagnosticada com anormalidade cromossômica ou de outro tipo, o aconselhamento genético é útil para determinar o risco de ocorrência de defeito cardíaco em filhos futuros.

 

REFERÊNCIAS

CIRURGIÕES CARDÍACOS PEDIÁTRICOS

Alto nível de especialização e em plena atividade no Brasil

Samaritano

Cirurgião cardiovascular do Hospital Samaritano, São Paulo

BP

Chefe de equipe da cirurgia cardíaca no Hospital Beneficiência Portuguesa, São Paulo

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